Source Water Protection Program

The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments established a new Section 1453 for source water quality assessments. This section required each primacy state to submit a source water assessment program to the EPA for approval.

A state assessment program is required to:

  • delineate the boundaries of areas providing source waters for public water systems, and
  • identify the origins of regulated and unregulated contaminants in
    the delineated area to determine the susceptibility of public water
    systems to such contaminants.

Download a factsheet on the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in PDF format here.

Cesspool Upgrade Alternatives for Upcountry Maui, dated October 2019 (SDWB-19-001-RW)

“The aim of this research is to use evidence to help design nutrient pollution solutions that will reduce the most pollution at a reasonable cost, while considering equity. We employ a structured decision-making approach to determine how alternative management practices may influence groundwater nitrogen levels and at what cost; and where nutrient reductions would be most beneficial to meet both water quality regulations/objectives, and other social goals. Specifically, we 1) identify a range of cesspool replacement options, 2) develop a range of management alternatives that incorporate technical feasibility, 3) analyze environmental benefit of each alternative; 4) enumerate costs of the alternatives; and 5) provide recommendations on the alternatives relative to cost, environmental benefit, and stakeholder-identified objectives.”

Submitted by:  Roger Babcock 1, Megan D. Barnes 2, Adrienne Fung 1, Whitney Goodell 2, Kirsten. L. L. Oleson 2
1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Resources Research Center
2 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management University of Hawaiʻi Mānoa


Robert Whittier SWAP Program Geologist

Contact Us

Phone: (808) 586-4258
Fax: (808) 586-4351
E-Mail: [email protected]

  • Oahu
    Safe Drinking Water Branch
    Environmental Management Division
    Hawaii State Department of Health
    2385 Waimano Home Road, Suite 110
    Uluakupu Building 4
    Pearl City, Hawaii 96782-1400
  • East Hawaii
    Safe Drinking Water Branch – Hilo
    Hawaii District Health Office – Hilo
    1582 Kamehameha Avenue
    Hilo, Hawaii 96720
    Phone: (808) 933-0401
    Fax: (808) 933-0400

Last Update: 10 April 2021